Amending the Constitution is a two-step process, requiring first passage by Congress, then ratification by three-fourths of the states. Five decades after the ERA was approved by Congress in 1972, Virginia ratified the amendment in 2020, and the quorum of 38 states was finally reached.Mar 19, 2021
In 2017, Nevada became the first state in 45 years to pass the ERA, followed by Illinois in 2018 and Virginia in 2020! Now that the necessary 38 states have ratified, Congress must eliminate the original deadline.
The three states had recently ratified the ERA, with Virginia claiming to be the 38th state — and final state — to ratify the amendment in 2020. … Under the Constitution, constitutional amendments are valid once ratified by three-fourths of the states — or 38 states.
The House voted to remove the ERA ratification deadline on February 12, 2020. The Alice Paul Institute also considers the amendment an important protection against the unpredictability of future administrations.
With 37 States having ratified the amendment, that leaves 13 that have not. These 13 states are: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia. politics on the ERA.
The Equal Rights Amendment has now met the standard in Article V that an amendment is “valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states.”
The 15 states that did not ratify the Equal Rights Amendment before the 1982 deadline were Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Utah, and Virginia.
Working women did not want the National Woman’s Party to promote the ERA, either. The ERA, thus, faltered because it failed to take into account the needs of working women and women of color. …
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On June 21, 1788, the Constitution became the official framework of the government of the United States of America when New Hampshire became the ninth of 13 states to ratify it. The journey to ratification, however, was a long and arduous process.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963, amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, protects against wage discrimination based on sex.
The amended Equal Pay Act prohibits an employer from paying any of its employees wage rates that are less than what it pays employees of the opposite sex, or of another race, or of another ethnicity for substantially similar work, when viewed as a composite of skill, effort, and responsibility, and performed under …
George Washington, as president of the Convention, signed first, followed by the other delegates, grouped by states in progression from north to south.
The document was written at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention and was ratified through a series of state conventions held in 1787 and 1788. … The Constitution grew out of efforts to reform the Articles of Confederation, an earlier constitution which provided for a loose alliance of states with a weak central government.
There were several reasons for Rhode Island’s resistance including its concern that the Constitution gave too much power to the central government at the expense of the states. The Constitution would also have made the state’s practice of printing paper money illegal.
Employers found guilty of violating the Equal Pay Act will be liable for compensatory damages. If an employee is able to prove that the employer willfully violated the law, the employer may also be required to pay punitive damages.
For about 20 years, through the 1960s and 1970s, the female-to-male earnings ratio was stagnant, hovering between 57 to 61 cents to the dollar of male earnings.
The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women in the same workplace be given equal pay for equal work. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. Job content (not job titles) determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
If an employer does not provide equal pay for equal work, then they may be in violation of the Equal Pay Act, and may be sued for discrimination. Some examples of EPA violations may include: Paying an employee less than another employee who performs the same work, based on that person’s gender.
There may be legitimate reasons for the pay disparity. … But sometimes, there may not be, and a salary analysis may be advisable. Not only that, there could be legal issues involved, so an HR department’s response needs to be well-considered.
Make no mistake, underpayment or nonpayment of wages you have earned is a violation of the law, and you have the right to seek proper compensation. However, unscrupulous employers can be very sneaky and creative in the ways they take advantage of their employees.
Those who did not attend included Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams and, John Hancock. In all, 55 delegates attended the Constitutional Convention sessions, but only 39 actually signed the Constitution.
The phrase “separation of church and state” does not appear anywhere in the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson wrote that the 1st Amendment erected a “wall of separation” between the church and the state (James Madison said it “drew a line,” but it is Jefferson’s term that sticks with us today).
Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention
He believed that the Constitution that emerged from the convention was the best possible for the time and praised the document for being amendable.
The 55 men who wrote the Constitution worked on it for four months. That would be as long as from now until December. Sometimes they agreed about what they wanted to write, at other times they didn’t.
Why did the British refuse to agree to the US request for “fair trade”? America owed Great Britain about 10 million pounds, and they had not paid their debt even as the interest continued to rise. Also, the British would not benefit from this request, and America did not have a structured government.
In 1791, a list of ten amendments was added. The first ten amendments to the Constitution are called the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights talks about individual rights. Over the years, more amendments were added.
Virginia and New York were the two largest states that hadn’t yet ratified the Constitution. The Constitution came into effect legally when New Hampshire ratified, but for it to have legitimacy in the eyes of all Americans the big states (Virginia and New York) had to say yes as well.
On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was signed. As dictated by Article VII, the document would not become binding until it was ratified by nine of the 13 states. Beginning on December 7, five states—Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia and Connecticut—ratified it in quick succession.
When English clergyman Roger Williams fled here in 1636 to found a haven from religious persecution, the new colony drew immediate criticism. “It was called the sewer of New England, it was called the Licentious Republic, it was called Rogues’ Island,” said historian J. Stanley Lemons.