Typically, three drugs are used in lethal injection. Pancuronium bromide (Pavulon) is used to cause muscle paralysis and respiratory arrest, potassium chloride to stop the heart, and midazolam for sedation.
Lubarsky notes that although a single, large dose of propofol could work as a method of execution, its use in US prisons would be problematic because it could be complex to administer and physicians are generally not willing to participate in the process (see Nature 441, 8–9; 2006).
While potassium chloride acts quickly, it is excruciatingly painful if administered without proper anesthesia. When injected into a vein, it inflames the potassium ions in the sensory nerve fibers, literally burning up the veins as it travels to the heart.
Midazolam causes patients to be sleepy and feel less anxious and they are temporarily unable to form new memories. Midazolam is usually given by IV, but it can also be given in the muscle, by a nose spray or through the cheek.
Versed may be a wonderful sedative (a drug that treats anxiety) and hypnotic (a drug that induces sleep), but it is NOT a general anesthetic (induces unconsciousness)—something that the idiots in an Oklahoma prison learned at the expense of a convicted murderer, who they were trying to execute with the wrong drugs.
Kcl Injection is a medicine used in the treatment of potassium deficiency in the body. This supplement can relieve muscle weakness, irregular heartbeat, nausea, and vomiting. It is an essential nutrient of the body which helps in the maintenance of good health.
The most common medications not provided in ready-to-administer syringes include: Antiemetics Antibiotics with short stability Metoprolol Antipsychotics Opioids Furosemide Benzodiazepines Pantoprazole These medications are available in a prefilled syringe, however supply has been limited.
Furosemide is a type of medicine called a diuretic. It’s used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure and oedema (a build up of fluid in the body). It’s also sometimes used to help you pee when your kidneys aren’t working properly. Diuretics are sometimes called “water pills/tablets” because they make you pee more.
“Propofol is the sedative of choice given to first knock you out. Usually, other anesthetics are then given to keep you under,” van Swinderen added.
Midazolam is used before surgery or a procedure. It helps to cause drowsiness, decrease anxiety, and to decrease your memory of the surgery or procedure. This medication may also be used to help with anesthesia or to sedate people who need a tube or machine to help with breathing.
Tung: Propofol is given intravenously to induce anesthesia in surgical patients and to provide sedation for patients in the Intensive Care Unit. It’s the most common induction agent of anesthesia in current use.
Midazolam hydrochloride syrup is used in pediatric patients. Ativan is used for the management of anxiety disorders, insomnia, panic attacks, and alcohol withdrawal. Brand names for midazolam include Versed.
Interactions between your drugs
Using propofol together with midazolam may have increased effects on breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and sedation. You will be monitored closely by your surgical team during anesthesia, and the doses of each medication adjusted accordingly.
Versed is in a class of drugs called benzodiazepines, which are central nervous system depressants and Schedule IV controlled substances.
Atropine Injection is given before anaesthesia to decrease mucus secretions, such as saliva. During anaesthesia and surgery, atropine is used to help keep the heart beat normal. Atropine sulfate monohydrate is also used to block or reverse the adverse effects caused by some medicines and certain type of pesticides.
Sodium Bicarbonate (sodium bicarbonate 5% injection) Injection may be indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis which can occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock, anoxia or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood and severe primary lactic …
Preparation of the injection
A 1:1 dilution of Ativan Injection with normal saline or Sterile Water for Injection BP is recommended in order to facilitate intramuscular administration.
An IV bolus is when medications over a longer time period, typically one to five minutes in non-emergency situations. The IV fluid line is typically wide open, as opposed to a typical slower drip of a long-dosing standard IV.
|IVPB||intravenous piggyback (i.v. short-term infusion)|
|IVPG||Intravenous pyogenic granuloma|
Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet medicine. It prevents platelets (a type of blood cell) from sticking together and forming a dangerous blood clot. Taking clopidogrel helps prevent blood clots if you have an increased risk of having them.
Hydralazine is used to treat high blood pressure. Hydralazine is in a class of medications called vasodilators. It works by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.
|Sleep medication||Helps you fall asleep||Helps you stay asleep|
You should not receive propofol if you are allergic to it. To make sure propofol is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have: epilepsy or other seizure disorder; or. high cholesterol or triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood).
Propofol is used as an “induction agent”—the drug that causes loss of consciousness— for general anesthesia in major surgery.
The drugs used in twilight anesthesia are similar to those used in general anesthesia, but the doses are lower. Specific drugs commonly used include: fentanyl, valium, ketamine, midazolam, or nitrous oxide (laughing gas). These drugs can be reversed quickly, so the patient can be woken up in a matter of minutes.
Chronic exposure to Versed can change your brain chemistry over time, leading to dependence and addiction within a matter of weeks or months. People who misuse Versed are also very likely to use it with other prescription benzodiazepines, opioids, or alcohol to enhance its effects.
Precedex is a prescription medicine used as a sedative before and/or during surgical and other procedures. Precedex may be used alone or with other medications. Precedex belongs to a class of drugs called Sedatives.
Patients sedated with propofol rarely complain of feeling “drugged” and more often remark that they feel as if they had a great nap. While fentanyl and other opioid-type drugs may cause nausea, particularly at higher doses, this is rare with propofol.
The main disadvantage of propofol is that it often causes people severe pain. This is because propofol is usually injected into a hand vein and can cause skin irritation. This can make the anaesthesia experience unpleasant.
Propofol has not been considered a controlled substance because it is not associated with physical dependency. Consequently, the addictive potential of the drug has received little attention.
Midazolam hydrochloride syrup is used in pediatric patients. Brand names for midazolam include Versed. Xanax is used as an anti-anxiety medication prescribed to treat panic attacks and anxiety disorders.
The central difference between lorazepam and diazepam is lorazepam leaves a person’s system more quickly, reducing the chance of toxicity or side effects. Side effects of both Ativan and Valium, aside from potential addiction, include drowsiness, fatigue, depression, unsteadiness, and memory problems.
Lorazepam is more potent and has a longer duration of action than midazolam. The longer duration of sedative effect may lead to significant delays in extubation and discharge of ICU patients who have been given even short-term infusions of lorazepam for sedation.