In Teaching Smart People How to Learn, Chris Argyris sheds light on the forces that prevent highly skilled employees for learning from mistakes and offers suggestions for helping talented employees develop more productive responses.
As for the immaturity/maturity continuum, the Chris Argyris theory states that successful employee empowerment requires management to provide opportunities for personal growth in the same 7 areas in which children must mature as they approach adulthood.
Double-loop learning is an educational concept and process that involves teaching people to think more deeply about their own assumptions and beliefs. It was created by Chris Argyris, a leading organizational trainer, in the mid-1980’s, and developed over the next decade into an effective tool.
Defensive reasoning refers to behaviors that are designed to defend oneself from criticism and embarrassment, and to turn the blame on others.
In addition, there are other benefits to teaching others, beyond the improvement in ability to learn the material. Such benefits include, for example, improved communication skills, increased confidence, and improved leadership ability.
Management theorist Chester Barnard believed organizations need to be both effective and efficient. … In other words, the organizational goals will be accomplished and authority will be accepted when workers feel satisfied that their individual needs are being met. This is known as the acceptance theory of authority.
Agryris believed that managers who treat people positively, and are responsible adults, will achieve the highest productivity. He thought that common problems of employee avoiding work, lack of interest, alienation and low morale may be signs of mismatch between management practice and mature adult personality.
Single Loop Learning is about making adjustments to correct a mistake or a problem. It is focused on doing the things right. Causality might be observed but typically is not addressed. Double Loop Learning is identifying and understanding causality and then taking action to fix the problem.
Single-Loop Learning (Following the Rules)
The conventional example used to explain this concept is the thermostat. It operates in one mode. When it detects that the room is too cold, it turns on the furnace. When it detects that the room is too hot, it turns off the furnace.
The term deutero-learning describes the context in which (proto-)learning processes occur. You “learn” not only what you are supposed to learn (in a common sense understanding); so, for example, riding a bike, learning a language, or repairing a car – these processes are all proto-learning.
Organizational defensive routines are actions or policies that prevent individuals or segments of the organization from experiencing embarrassment or threat. Simultaneously, they prevent people from identifying and getting rid of the causes of the potential embarrassment or threat.
Teaching others can improve student efficacy, confidence, and communication skills. When students teach someone else, they develop higher self-efficacy and productive beliefs about themselves as competent learners. They also practice valuable social skills like how to communicate with others.
Observational learning (also known as vicarious1 learning, social learning, or modeling) is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others.
Barnard has identified three types of functions which an executive performs in a formal organisation. maintenance or organizational communication through formal interactions. the securing of essential services from individuals to achieve organizational purpose. the formulation and definition of organizational purpose.
The management theory of Elton Mayo can help you build more productive teams. … Mayo management theory states that employees are motivated far more by relational factors such as attention and camaraderie than by monetary rewards or environmental factors such as lighting, humidity, etc.
Mary Parker Follett, or the “Mother of Modern Management,” believed that management was “the art of getting things done through people.” … Direct contact between employees and managers helps organizations avoid conflict and misunderstandings.
… assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individuals factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. …
Argyris Maturity Theory, presented by Chris Argyris in Personality and Organization, is one of the many theories that seek to explain the human nature and behavior. According to this theory, a persons’ development is processed along a continuous break of an immaturity situation to a maturity situation.
Well, organizational learning is the organization’s process of gaining knowledge related to its function and using that knowledge to adapt to a changing environment and increase efficiency. The organization as a whole needs to learn and adapt for long term success.