By five years old, children will start to associate letters with their accompanying sounds, otherwise known as phonics. In other words, around the age of five, children should be able to reason that the word “book” starts with the letter B.
Fine motor skills at age 5 are that children can:
Write their first and last name. Write the entire alphabet with varied neatness. Draw objects and thread beads onto string.
Count 10 or more objects. Correctly name at least four colors and three shapes. Recognize some letters and possibly write their name. Better understand the concept of time and the order of daily activities, like breakfast in the morning, lunch in the afternoon, and dinner at night.
At this age, children can express feelings, although they might need help and time to identify and talk about tricky emotions like frustration or jealousy. They often have much better control over feelings too and might have fewer unexpected outbursts of anger and sadness.
Children usually start to identify letters of the alphabet by 3 to 4 years of age. Preschoolers begin by learning the uppercase letters first, as these are simpler to recognize and write. Once kids know at least a few letters, they try to write them.
Sleep: what children need
At 5-11 years, children need 9-11 hours sleep a night. For example, if your child wakes for school at 7 am and needs approximately 10 hours sleep per night, your child should be in bed before 9 pm. Some children fall deeply asleep very quickly when they go to bed.
Learning to read in school
Most children learn to read by 6 or 7 years of age. Some children learn at 4 or 5 years of age. Even if a child has a head start, she may not stay ahead once school starts. The other students most likely will catch up during the second or third grade.
Children who are 5-6 years of age are counting to 30 and able to represent numbers to 20. This means that they can link the number of objects to the numeral. Children are grouping objects into sets and learning to count by ones to determine the size of each set.
Their sentence structures may now include five or more words, and their vocabulary is between 1,000 and 2,000 words. Speech at this age should be completely understandable, although there may be some developmental sound errors and stuttering, particularly among boys.
Anger issues in kids can be caused by conditions like autism, ADHD, anxiety or learning disorders. Kids with these conditions often have meltdowns around school or homework or when they don’t want to do something. The good news is that children can learn skills to help them control their feelings.
Phonics involves matching the sounds of spoken English with individual letters or groups of letters. For example, the sound k can be spelled as c, k, ck or ch. Teaching children to blend the sounds of letters together helps them decode unfamiliar or unknown words by sounding them out.
In addition to math and language arts, which are a major focus of kindergarten, children also learn science, social science, and usually art, music, health and safety, and physical education.
Generally, a preschooler should be eating between 1200 and 1600 calories per day. However this will vary based on gender, weight and height, as well as activity level. Parents should discuss overall calories with a doctor or registered dietitian.
The AAP recommends toddlers 12 to 24 months consume 2–3 cups (16–24 ounces) of whole milk per day and children ages 2 to 5 years drink 2–2.5 cups (16–20 ounces) of low fat or skim milk per day.