In APA style, no personal communication is included as an entry in your reference list. Instead, parenthetically cite your teacher’s name, the phrase “personal communication,” and the date of the communication as an in-text citation. Examples: (Teacher’s First Initial.
Reference list. Professor’s last name, Initial of first name. year, month and day of lecture. Lecture title in italics [Lecture recording].
When including information from a class handout, put a reference citation in text. After the material, insert the author’s last name and the page number of the document, if available; for example: (Doe 2). If the author’s name is mentioned in text, omit it from the parentheses.
Speaker last name, First name. “Lecture Title.” Course or Event Name, Day Month Year, Institution, Location. Lecture.
To reference a PowerPoint presentation in APA Style, include the name of the author (whoever presented the PowerPoint), the date it was presented, the title (italicized), “PowerPoint slides” in square brackets, the name of the department and university, and the URL where the PowerPoint can be found.
|Format||Speaker last name, First name. “Lecture Title.” Course or Event Name, Day Month Year, Venue, City.|
The format for unpublished material is: Author. Title of Presentation. Paper, Poster, or lecture presented at: Place it was presented; date; location.
You would reference this source in-text as you normally would by the author’s last name and date. For lecture notes, you would write something like [Lecture notes on key Sophists] in place of the title. Your second choice is to refer to the lecture as personal communication.
|Format||Author last name, First name. “Presentation Title.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.|
|In-text citation||(Vanderbauwhede, slide 4)|
Class Lectures (Notes From)
Note: Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.
When citing an image in a PowerPoint presentation, the citation information can go under the image on the slide or on the references slide. For the citation, you need the creator’s name, the title of the work, medium, publisher, and place of publication, if available.
When there is no author, provide the title of the PowerPoint. If the title is short, provide the full title. If it’s long, provide the first few words. When there is no date for the PowerPoint, use the initials “n.d.”
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
To cite an online lecture or speech, follow the MLA format template. List the name of the presenter, followed by the title of the lecture. Then list the name of the website as the title of the container, the date on which the lecture was posted, and the URL: Allende, Isabel.
Instructor’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of PowerPoint Presentation.” Title of Course, Date of PowerPoint presentation, Location of presentation. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. If the slideshow was created by other presentation software, such as Prezi, use that instead.
The citation would adhere to the following structure: Author. Title of presentation. Where it was presented; Date of presentation; Location of presentation.
Format: Author Name. Name of Presentation. Poster or Paper presented at: Name of Conference; Date of Conference; Location of Conference.
The citation on the Reference page for the lecture notes would look like the following in APA: Author. (year). In italics write the name or title of the lecture.
Lecture with a title:
Last Name, First Name. “Lecture Title.” Meeting/Event/Course Title. Venue, Date Conducted, Sponsoring Institution (if applicable), City. Pausch, Randy.
Include any in-text citations for class notes on the Works Cited page. Begin with the last name of the lecturer, a comma and the first name. Within quotation marks, put the title of the lecture and a period. If there is no title, use “Lecture” without quotation marks, and add a period.
If you are citing a class lecture, provide the lecture title in quotation marks after the professor’s name, the course name and course number after the lecture title and add the word “Class lecture” (without quotation marks) after the location.
If you are permitted to reference lecture notes, ask if your lecturer prefers you to cite the lecture as a normal reference or as a personal communication. You need to provide the details in-text only for a personal communication, you do not provide a reference list entry. APA 7 is the latest version of APA.
The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.). If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas.
The basic format for citing a book chapter in MLA format is: Author(s) of Chapter. “Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter.” Title of Book, edited by Editor of Book, Publisher, Publication Date, page numbers.
eBook From a Website
Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication, Website Name, URL. Accessed Access Date.
When creating a PowerPoint you’ll need to cite your sources both in the text of your presentation, as well as on a references slide at the end. … Every time you quote, paraphrase or use an image from a source in your presentation, you’ll need an in-text citation on your slide.
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).
APA 7th Edition
If the PowerPoint is only available to people who attended the presentation or via password-protected access that your audience doesn’t have, treat the PowerPoint slides as a personal communication and cite it using the name of the person or organization who provided the PowerPoint.
Reference format for PowerPoint slides available online
Author, A. A. (Year). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Platform e.g. SlideShare.
You need to make clear where someone else’s narration stops and you begin with your own words. Therefore, putting one citation at the end of a paragraph paraphrase is NOT APA compliant. If paraphrasing multiple consecutive sentences from the same source, cite each sentence to avoid plagiarism.